sábado, 15 de octubre de 2016

Psicofármacos y cine - Psychopharmacology & Film - Francisco Huertas Hernández



Psicofármacos y cine
Psychopharmacology & Film

Francisco Huertas Hernández




"Altered States" (1980). Ken Russell
"Viaje alucinante al fondo de la mente". El científico Eddie Jessup (William Hurt) cree que hay otros estados de conciencia que son tan reales como la vida cotidiana. Utilizando la privación sensorial y añadiendo medicamentos potentes y alucinógenos, investiga estos estados alterados y soporta experiencias que hacen que la locura parezca una bendición


 A psychiatric medication is a licensed psychoactive drug taken to exert an effect on the chemical makeup of the brain and nervous system. Thus, these medications are used to treat mental illnesses. Usually prescribed in psychiatric settings, these medications are typically made of synthetic chemical compounds. Since the mid-20th century, such medications have been leading treatments for a broad range of mental disorders and have decreased the need for long-term hospitalization, therefore lowering the cost of mental health care.

HISTORY                                                                                            
Modern psychiatric medication has advanced greatly in the past century. The reuptake hypothesis by Julius Axelrod involves the interaction among neurotransmitters, and forms the cornerstone of the development of modern psychotropic drugs.[5] His work allowed researchers to further advance their studies into the effects of psychiatric medication. Mental health medications were first introduced in the mid-20th century with the widespread introduction of chlorpromazine, an antipsychotic. The popularity of these drugs have skyrocketed since then, with millions prescribed annually.[6]
As of 2013, the 10 most prescribed psychiatric drugs by number of prescriptions were alprazolamsertralinecitalopramfluoxetinelorazepamtrazodoneescitalopramduloxetinebupropion XL, and venlafaxine XR.[7]


"Fight Club" (1999). David Fincher
Tuinal is the brand name of a combination drug composed of two barbiturate salts (secobarbital sodium and amobarbital sodium) in equal proportions.
Tuinal was introduced as a sedative medication in the late 1940s by Eli Lilly. It was produced in gelatin capsule form for oral administration. Individual capsules contained 50 mg, 100 mg, or 200 mg of barbiturate salts.
In the movie Fight Club (1999), Jack's narration refers to "red and blue Tuinals" when he sees the doctor about his insomnia


Administration

Psychiatric medications are prescription medications, requiring a prescription from a physician, such as a psychiatrist, or a psychiatric nurse practitioner, PMHNP, before they can be obtained. Some U.S. states and territories, following the creation of the prescriptive authority for psychologists movement, have granted prescriptive privileges to clinical psychologists who have undergone additional specialised education and training in medical psychology.[8] In addition to the familiar dosage in pill form, psychiatric medications are evolving into more novel methods of drug delivery. New technologies include transdermal,transmucosalinhalation, and suppository supplements.[9]

Research

Main article: Psychopharmacology
Psychopharmacology studies a wide range of substances with various types of psychoactive properties. The professional and commercial fields of pharmacology and psychopharmacology do not typically focus on psychedelic or recreational drugs, and so the majority of studies are conducted on psychiatric medication. While studies are conducted on all psychoactive drugs by both fields, psychopharmacology focuses on psychoactive and chemical interactions within the brain. Physicians who research psychiatric medications are psychopharmacologists, specialists in the field of psychopharmacology.

Adverse and withdrawal effects

Psychiatric medications carry risk for adverse effects. The occurrence of adverse effects can potentially reduce drug compliance. Some adverse effects can be treated symptomatically by using adjunct medications such as anticholinergics(antimuscarinics). Some rebound or withdrawal adverse effects, such as the possibility of a sudden or severe emergence or re-emergence of psychosis in antipsychotic withdrawal, may appear when the drugs are discontinued, or discontinued too rapidly.[10]

Types

There are six main groups of psychiatric medications.


"Side Effects" (2013). Steven Soderbergh
"Efectos secundarios"
Side Effects is a 2013 American psychological thriller film directed by Steven Soderbergh and written by Scott Z. Burns. It stars Jude Law as a psychiatrist whose patient (Rooney Mara) murders her husband (Channing Tatum) after being prescribed a new antidepressant drug. Catherine Zeta-Jones co-stars as the patient's previous psychiatrist

Antidepressants

Main article: Antidepressant
Antidepressants are drugs used to treat clinical depression, and they are also often used for anxiety and other disorders. Most antidepressants will hinder the breakdown of serotonin or norepinephrine or both. A commonly used class of antidepressants are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which act on serotonin transporters in the brain to increase levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft.[12] SSRIs will often take 3–5 weeks to have a noticeable effect, as the regulation of receptors in the brain adapts. There are multiple classes of antidepressants which have different mechanisms of action. Another type of antidepressant is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, which is thought to block the action of Monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that breaks down serotonin and norepinephrine. MAOIs are not used as first-line treatment due to the risk of hypertensive crisisrelated to the consumption of foods containing the amino acid tyramine.[12][13]
Common antidepressants:



"Prozac Nation" (2001). Erik Skjoldbjærg
Film sobre la fluoxetina (Prozac)


Antipsychotics

Main article: Antipsychotics
Antipsychotics are drugs used to treat various symptoms of psychosis, such as those caused by psychotic disorders orschizophreniaAtypical antipsychotics are also used as mood stabilizers in the treatment of bipolar disorder, and they can augment the action of antidepressants in major depressive disorder.[12] Antipsychotics are sometimes referred to as neuroleptic drugs and some antipsychotics are branded "major tranquilizers".


"A Beautiful Mind" (2001). Ron Howard
A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 American biographical drama film based on the life of John Nash, a Nobel Laureate in Economics. The film was directed by Ron Howard. It was inspired by a bestselling 1998 book of the same name by Sylvia Nasar. The film stars Russell Crowe, along with Ed Harris, Jennifer Connelly, Paul Bettany, Adam Goldberg, Judd Hirsch, Josh Lucas, Anthony Rapp, and Christopher Plummer in supporting roles. The story begins in Nash's days as a graduate student at Princeton University. Early in the film, Nash begins to develop paranoid schizophrenia and endures delusional episodes while painfully watching the loss and burden his condition brings on wife Alicia and friends.
"In the movie A Beautiful Mind, the main character John Nash suffers from paranoid schizophrenia, which alters his perception and expression of reality. The symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia include visual and auditory hallucinations, bizarre delusions, or disorganized speech, which significantly alters occupational and social functioning. Paranoid schizophrenia can be the result of acute traumatic events, environmental, or genetic influences. Areas of the brain that are affected by schizophrenia include the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe, and the hippocampus. Excess dopamine produced in the mesolimbic pathway significantly exaggerates schizophrenic delusions and cognitive abnormalities. This dopamine theory of schizophrenia was discovered by the exaggeration of psychotic behavior under the influence of amphetamines (which causes a cascading release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine), and a recession of symptoms after taking selective dopamine inhibitors and selective serotonin production inhibitors. Another neurochemical pathway associated with schizophrenia is the NMDA (N-methyl-dextro-asparate) receptor" (https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=75645)


There are two categories of antipsychotics: typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics. Most antipsychotics are available only by prescription.
Common antipsychotics:
Typical antipsychoticsAtypical antipsychotics


" 昨天" (2001). 张扬
"Quitting" (2001). Zhang Yang
This film depicts the challenges and pain of detoxifying outside of a structured hospital environment. Anxyolitics such as Valium, Librium and Xanax used to reduce the severity of the effects of detoxitification

Anxiolytics and hypnotics

Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, myorelaxants and amnesics.[15] Having less proclivity for overdose and toxicity, they have widely supplanted barbiturates.
Developed in the 1950s onward, benzodiazepines were originally thought to be non-addictive at therapeutic doses, but are now known to cause withdrawal symptoms similar to barbiturates and alcohol.[16] Benzodiazepines are generally recommended for short-term use.[17]
Z-drugs are a group of drugs with effects generally similar to benzodiazepines, which are used in the treatment of insomnia.
Common benzodiazepines and z-drugs include:
BenzodiazepinesZ-drug hypnotics





Mood stabilizers

Main article: Mood stabilizers
In 1949, the Australian John Cade discovered that lithium salts could control mania, reducing the frequency and severity of manic episodes. This introduced the now popular drug lithium carbonate to the mainstream public, as well as being the first mood stabilizer to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Besides lithium, several anticonvulsants and atypical antipsychotics have mood stabilizing activity. The mechanism of action of mood stabilizers is not well understood.
Common mood stabilizers:[citation needed]

Stimulants

Main article: Stimulant
A stimulant is a drug that stimulates the central nervous system, increasing arousal, attention and endurance. Stimulants are used in psychiatry to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Because the medications can be addictive, patients with a history of drug abuse are typically monitored closely or treated with a non-stimulant.
Common stimulants:

(Wikipedia)


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